SUDANíS GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING
a Republic in Northeast Africa, is the largest
country in the continent. It is bounded in
the north by Egypt; in the east by the Red Sea,
Eritrea and Ethiopia; in the south by Kenya, Uganda
and Zaire; and on the west by the Republic of
Central Africa, Chad and Libya in the North-West.
Sudan has a total area of 2,505,813 sq km (about
967, 495 sq miles). The capital city is Khartoum.
Other major cities are Juba and Omdurman, Madani,
Obaid, Fashir, Nyala and Port Sudan.
countryís estimated 1999 population equaled
approximately 34.4 million. Sudanís official
language is Arabic, however, over 100 languages are
spoken throughout the country. The local currency is
Sudanese dinar. The international time zone is GMT
+2 and the international dialing code is +249.
Sudanese history was influenced by Napoleon's
victory in 1797, at the battle of the Pyramids which
shook the power of the Mamelukes rulers of Egypt, and paved the way for the
rise to power of the Albenian soldier
Muhammad Ali Basha.
Muhammad Ali sent his third son Ismail at the head
of 10,000 men across the desert to annex Sudan and, by 1821, all of
north and central Sudan was under his control. For
the first time, the Sudan began to take shape as a political entity.
Salvation was to come from the desert. A man called Muhammad
Ahmad, was born in 1844. He soon
retired to Aba Island, 150 miles south of Khartoum,
to lead the life of a religious man, proclaiming
himself in 1881 to be the Mahdi. The tribes of the
west rallied to the Mahdi's call for a war against
the colonizers. In 1884, the Mahdi
conquered all parts of Sudan except Khartoum.
British, who meanwhile had moved into Egypt,
resolved that the Sudan could not be held, and sent
General Charles Gordon to evacuate Khartoum. After
317 days the Mahdi's followers overran the
city's defenses. They razed Khartoum and killed The
English Governor Gordon.
months after the fall of Khartoum, the Mahdi died of
typhus; Khalifa Abdallah succeeded him. Hardly had
he come to power when the Sudan was plunged in a
series of civil wars. In September 1898 the
Anglo-Egyptian force led by General Herbert
Kitchener met the Khalifa's 60,000 warriors on an
open plain outside Omdurman at a place called Karari. Khalifa's casualties
comprised 10,800 killed and 16.000 wounded, and
Kitchener entered Omdurman as a conqueror.
January 19, 1899 Britain and Egypt signed a
condominium agreement under which the Sudan was to
be administered jointly. Mounting Egyptian nationalism in the
period after World War I culminated in 1924 in the
assassination of Sir Lee Stack, Governor - General
of the Sudan in the streets of Cairo; the British
reaction resulted in the expulsion of all Egyptian
officials from the Sudan.
1936 a few Egyptians were allowed to return to the
country in minor posts. But the signing of the 1936
agreement stimulated Sudanese nationalists who
objected both to the return of the Egyptians and to
the fact that other nations were deciding their
destiny. Expression of this feeling was seen in the
formation of the Graduates' Congress, under the
leadership of Ismail al-Azhari.
Sudan map: the arrow points to the Dam's
of the Condominium Rule
February 12, 1953, Britain and Egypt signed an
accord ending the condominium rule and agreed to
grant Sudan self-government within three years. The
agreement also provided for a senate for the Sudan,
a Council of Ministers, and a House of
Representatives, elections which was to be
supervised by an international commission.
elections that were held during November and
December 1953 resulted in victory for the National
Unionist Party (NUP), and its leader, Ismail al-Azhari,
became the Sudan's first Prime Minister in January
1954. The replacement of British and Egyptian
officers in the Sudanese civil service by Sudanese
nationals followed rapidly.
December 19, 1955, the Parliament voted unanimously
that the Sudan should become "a fully independent
sovereign state". Consequently, British and Egyptian
troops left the country on January 1, 1956; the same
day a five-man Council of State was appointed to
take over the powers of the governor general until a
new constitution was set up.
years, later, on 17 November 1958 a bloodless army
coup led by General Ibrahim Abboud toppled the
Government of al-Azhari. On his assuming power,
General Abboud declared that he would rule through a
thirteen-member army junta and that democracy was
being suspended in the Sudan in the name of "honesty
and integrity". Abboud was toppled in a popular
uprising in October 1964.
1966, Sadig al-Mahdi, the 30-year-old president of
the Umma party, took over as Prime Minister.
Internally, the security situation in the southern
Sudan continued to cause anxiety; successive Prime
Ministers visited the South in April and October but
neither threats nor blandishments succeeded in
curbing the rebels.
Ministry for Southern Affairs sought to restore
normal life to those parts of the southern provinces
under government control, but there was little or no
security in Equatoria Province. In May 1969 Colonel
Numeiry came to power after a military coup de etat,
and the armed forces launched a major offensive
against the rebel camps there in October 1970.
war ended officially in March 1972, when Colonel
Numeiry signed the Addis Ababa Peace Pact with
the Leader of the Anya-Nya rebels in the south.
Numeiry ruled the country until 1985 when he was
removed by a the April Popular Uprising. An elected civilian
government led by Sadig El- Mahdi replaced him.
in 1988 and early 1989, following farther discontent
in the country and within the military Brig.
Omar Hassan 'Ahmed El Bashir led the National
Salvation Revolution on June 30, 1989. He formed
a 15 member Revolutionary Command Council for
Government underwent a lot of reforms to move from a
military government to the election system. On 9th
Jan 2005 the government singed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement
with the SPLA to end Sudan's
21-year civil war. Now the country is ruled by a
National Unity Government formed based on the Peace
Agreement. An appointed legislative body was also
formed according to that agreement.
Sudan has considerable natural resources. Its
economy was almost exclusively agricultural until
the start of significant oil production in 1999.
Stable prices resulting from International Monetary
Fund (IMF)-approved macroeconomic policies have led
to a slowdown in currency depreciation and an
improved fiscal balance. In 2004, Sudan 's real GDP
grew 6.5% and is expected to grow 6.2% in 2005.
Exports have increased sharply since the completion
of a main oil export pipeline in 1999, although the
country ran a current account deficit of $727
million in 2003. In an effort to increase its trade
potential, Sudan has applied for World Trade
Organization (WTO) membership, with the conclusion
of negotiations expected in 2008. Despite its
economic progress, Sudan faces various developmental
obstacles, including limited infrastructure and an
external debt estimated in 2003 at $24 billion.
Continued economic improvements are contingent on
the country qualifying for massive debt relief.
Sudan had an estimate energy production of
3,354 gegawatt in 2003. of which 1,163.2 coming from
hydropower stations, 1,167.8 steam power generation,
209.7 diesel power generation, 328.2 coming from gas
turbine power stations, and 485.1 GW from combined
power stations. (for more information refer to the
National Electricity Corporation website at http://www.necsudan.com/). The
country's main generating facility is the 280-MW Roseires dam located on the Blue Nile river basin,
approximately 315 miles southeast of Khartoum . The
low water levels often cause its output
to fall to 100 MW.
Electricity is transmitted through two
interconnected electrical grids -- the Blue Nile
Grid and the Western grid -- which cover only a
small portion of the country. Regions not covered by
the grid rely on small diesel-fired generators and
wood fuel for power. Only 30% of Sudanese currently
have access to electricity, but the government hopes
to increase that figure to 90% in coming years. In
June 2004, the Electricity Minister Ali Tamim
Fartak said that Sudan has secured more than $2
billion of the estimated $3 billion necessary to
meet that goal.
Several projects are underway to increase the
generating capacity. The largest include the 1,250-MW Merowe
Dam and the 300-MW proposed Kajbar hydroelectric
facilities in northern Sudan. The Chinese
Government, few Arab countries and several Arab
Funds have contributed funding to construction
of the Merowe facility, which is scheduled for
completion in July 2008.
addition to the Merowe and Kajbar facilities, in
June 2004, Sudan inaugurated two electric power
stations located north of Khartoum, estimated to
have a combined capacity of 330 MW. In November
2004, Sudan's first independent power production (IPP)
project also went on stream. Located near Khartoum,
the 257-MW diesel plant sells output to the
state-owned National Electricity Corporation (NEC).
Several additional power stations with a total
capacity of 700 MW are scheduled for completion
Foreign investment in the Sudanese power sector is
expected to increase with the cessation of the
recently-ended civil war.
El Jaili Power Plant Project
National Electricity Corporation (NEC) built a new
site within the vicinity of Khartoum refining at
El-Jaili. El-Jaili combined cycle power station is refer to as
Plant configuration: 2 blocks 2 ( 2 + 1 ) type 206 B
Contractor: Harbin Power Engineering Company limited
Consultant: Lahmeyer International of Germany.
a) Other scope of supply: Transmission
lines, Eid Babiker / Kilo x 220 / 110 KV.
Babiker / Khartoum North substations at Elgaili 6
units transformers 40 MVA each.
(b) AT Eid Babiker 2 x 150 MVA Transformers .
(c) Date of Contracting: 21 April 2001
Project Duration : 32 months
(e) Financing : Credit Facility for 10 years .
Dit Kilo X Power Station
257 MW Diesel
Generation on IPP Basis
NEC has signed its
first Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) on 3 May
The PPA is made
with DIT of Malaysia along 18 months negotiation
.The generation Project is composed of 7 diesel
units and to be interconnected at the existing
Kilo X substation where bays for injection of
110 KV are available .
The station has been named ( DIT KILO X POWER STATION
), managed by Malaysian staff at the
administration level while the Sudanese would be
employed for running and maintaining the plant .The
Project recruits 300 of operation and
maintenance Personnel .
Sudan contains proven reserves of 563 million
barrels of oil, more than twice the 262 million
barrels estimated in 2001. Because much of Sudanese
oil exploration has been limited to the central and
south-central regions, Sudanese Energy Ministry
representatives estimate proven reserves at 700
million barrels and total reserves at five billion
barrels, including potential reserves in northwest
Sudan , the Blue Nile Basin , and the Red Sea area
in eastern Sudan . Oil production has risen steadily
since the completion of an export pipeline in July
1999. Crude oil production averaged 343,000 barrels
per day (bbl/d) in 2004, up from 270,000 bbl/d
during 2003. In December 2004, Sudanese Energy
Minister Awad al-Jaz announced that oil production
will likely increase to 500,000 bbl/d in 2005.
Sudanese production may reach 750,000 bbl/d by late
2006 if increases in output progress as planned.
recent peace agreement between the government and
the SPLA will likely lead to substantial investment
in both production facilities and new exploration
initiatives in the country. In January 2005, after
the official signing of the CPA, Total SA, Marathon
Oil Corporation, and the Kuwait Foreign Petroleum
Company renewed their exploration rights in southern
GREATER NILE OIL PROJECT
In 1996, Canadian independent Arakis Energy (Arakis)
began development of the Heglig and Unity fields
(Blocks 1, 2, and 4), estimated to contain
recoverable reserves of 600 million to 1.2 billion
barrels. Because the fields were not located near
the Red Sea coast, Arakis entered into a consortium
with the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC)
to raise investment for a 994-mile pipeline from the
fields to the Suakim oil terminal near Port Sudan.
In September 1999, the first cargo of "Nile Blend"
crude departed the export terminal. Although the
pipeline from the fields to an export terminal near
Port Sudan was originally built to move 150,000
bbl/d, its capacity reportedly can be expanded to
450,000 bbl/d. In January 2005, GNPOC reported
production of 325,000 bbl/d from Blocks 1, 2, and 4.
March 2003, Talisman sold its stake in GNPOC
(acquired through its purchase of Arakis) to India's
national oil company, ONGC Videsh. In
August 2004, ONGC agreed to facilitate Sudan's
purchase of the 25% stake. ONGC also plans to give
Sudapet a two percent stake in Block 5A and a one
percent stake in Block 5B.
In June 2004, Petrodar, a consortium of the China
National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) (41%),
Petronas (40%), Sudapet (8%), Gulf Oil Petroleum
(6%), and the Al-Thani Corporation (5%) awarded a
$239 million contract to Malaysia 's Ranhill
International and Sudan 's Petroneeds Services
International for development work on blocks 3 and
7. The blocks contain the Adar Yeil and Tale fields,
which came online in 2005 with a combined
capacity of 200,000 bbl/d. Capacity is expected to
increase to 300,000 bbl/d by late 2006. Construction
will include a 300,000 bbl/d central processing
facility at Al-Jabalayan, production facilities at
Palogue, and a pipeline linking the two. CNPC's
Block 6 also came online in November 2004 at a rate
of 10,000 bbl/d, expected to eventually reach
October 2004, Malaysian Peremba began construction
of a $232 million marine export terminal for the
Melut Basin Oil Development Project. The terminal,
scheduled for completion in December 2005, will have
a capacity of 2 million bbl/d. Malaysia's Nam Fatt
and Italy's Bentinin have been contracted to build
six pumping facilities in the basin by April 2006.
Construction on a 870-mile pipeline linking the
Melmut Basin to the export terminal near Port Sudan
has been divided into four parts, with separate
consortias to undertake each of the segments. In
July 2004, a consortium led by MMC Corporation was
contracted to build a 304-mile portion, scheduled
for completion in May 2005. In August 2004, Russian
Stroitransgas began construction on a 227-mile
section, which it expects to complete within 12
exploration activity recently commenced in several
regions of Sudan . In June 2004, oil exploration
began for the first time in northern Sudan , on
Block 9 in the Jazira region north of Khartoum .
Exploration drilling in the Nile Valley 's al-Damir
began in November 2004.
Sudan has been self-sufficient in producing all
petroleum products except aviation fuel since the
June 2000 opening of the Khartoum Oil Refinery. The
Khartoum refinery, built and operated by CNPC,
produces benzene and butane gas for domestic
consumption and export, as well as gasoline for
local consumption. Although the Khartoum refinery
has a named crude refining capacity of 50,000 bbl/d,
this reportedly increased to 70,000 bbl/d in June
Port Sudan facility, located near the Red Sea, is
Sudan's smallest refinery and has a current capacity
of 21,700 bbl/d. In November 2004, the Sudanese
government announced plans to expand its refining
capacity by upgrading facilities at Khartoum and
Port Sudan, giving them capacities of 100,000 bbl/d
each, by primarily capitalizing on CNPC's $340
million injection into the Khartoum refinery in
August 2004, ONGC agreed to invest $200 million in a
460-mile Sudanese pipeline in return for payment in
crude oil. The pipeline will have a capacity of
18,330 bbl/d and transport gas, oil, and gasoline
from the Khartoum refinery to Port Sudan. Completion
is expected in October 2005.
addition to refineries at Khartoum and Port Sudan,
the country has two other refineries --El Gaily,
with a capacity of 50,000 bbl/d; and El Obeid, with
a capacity of 10,000 bbl/d.
Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources is
responsible for the nationís water resources. The
River Nile and its tributaries is the most important
water resource in the country.
River flowing through
which has its sources in Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya,
Tanzania, and Burundi. The Nile, and then we talk
about the river when defined as starting with the
Kyaka river in Burundi, is 6,671 km long, and has a
surface area of a total of 3,350,000 km≤ (5 times
the area of France). The discharge is around 3,1
million litres per second.
The ancient name of the Nile, was Iteru. The annual flood
was personified by the god Hapy, who was associated
with fertility and regeneration.
Nile can be divided into three zones: The
tributaries, the many rivers that make up the stream
of the Nile. The White and Blue Niles join near
Khartoum in Sudan, and other tributaries join the
White Nile further south. The second zone is the
The third and last zone is the delta, where the Nile
divides into several branches, of which Rosetta
(Rashid) and Damietta (Dumyat) are the main ones.
The Nile Delta is the widest habitable area of the
Nile, and it even includes several lakes, like
Manzala, Buruillus and Edku.
Modern times have added more division lines, like the
two dams at Aswan.
South of this the river valley opens up, allowing
rich agriculture and high population density. The
width of the Nile below
ó it's most important stretch in terms of
inhabitants and economy ó is 2.8 km in average. The
greatest width is at Edfu, with 7.5 km, the smallest
at Silwa Gorge, near Aswan, with 350 metres.
There are also minor dams in Sudan, aiding agriculture and
protecting against large floods.
About 83% of the total water of the Nile comes from
Lake Tana, 1,800 metres above sea level in the
Ethiopian mountains. The lake flows over every
summer providing for the flood that today is tamed
by the barrages of Sudan and southern Egypt. This
water flows through the Blue Nile until it joins the
White Nile at Khartoum, Sudan to form the Nile. The
other main source is the White Nile originating in
Uganda and Burundi. It contributes with 16%, but
this is a more steady flow. Without it, the river
Nile would run dry in May. As there are many single
contributors to the White Nile, it is a question of
definition on where the Nile really starts. The
longest stretch of the Nile comes with the start of
Kyaka river in Burundi, close to large Lake
Tanganyika. This passage goes through Lake Victoria,
then Victoria Nile, Lake Albert, Albert Nile, which
in Sudan is called Mountain Nile. Mountain Nile
joins other rivers of Sudan to form the White Nile.
The third contributor is the River Atbara, which joins the
main course of the Nile 300 km north of Khartoum.
Atbara river contributes with less than 1%, and runs
dry at times of the year.
The Nile carries water all through the year, but the
amount of water it carries, varies depending on the
season. With the construction of
Aswan High Dam,
this is now controlled for Egypt's part. In ancient
times, when agriculture depended much upon the water
and the silt from the annual flood, the ideal
flooding height was 7-8 metres. Less than that, and
the produce was in danger. More than that, and the
flood could cause major damage.
There are more dams than the one at Aswan, in Sudan the
Blue Nile is dammed by Sennar Dam and Roseiris Dam.
The White Nile is dammed just before Khartoum. Both
are important for local agriculture. The Nile ends
in a delta area, that is also its most fertile, in
DAMS IN SUDAN
There are four large dams in operation. The
two largest dams are the Roseires and Sennar on the
Blue Nile. Both of these are multipurpose
Roseires Dam is located on the Blue Nile about 500
kilometres south-east of the Sudanese capital of
Khartoum. The 280 MW hydro-electric plant located at
the dam supplies nearly half of Sudanís power
output, though generation varies greatly through the
year with changing river flows. The dam also
provides irrigation water for the Gezira Plain. The
Nile rises dramatically in the flood season between
July and September when the damís five massive
sluice gates are opened to permit silt to flow down
the Nile and to avoid siltation of the reservoir.
Since the damís completion in the mid-1960s the
steel lining of the gates has become very corroded.
A German company has been commissioned to repair the
gates and SMEC has been appointed engineering
adviser to the Ministry of Irrigation and Water
SMECsí role is to review and comment on the German
rehabilitation design and to oversee the repair
process which is carried out during several months
of each year from December onwards when downstream
access to the gates is possible. Repair is expected
to take three or four years. Finance for the work is
being provided by the Islamic Development Bank.
is the oldest dam in the country. It was built in
1926 to provide irrigation for the Gezira Scheme. It has
recently been rehabilitated, as part of a programme
to rehabilitate the Gezira irrigation scheme. Work
included refurbishment of the sluiceways and
installation of additional isolating gates. The two
irrigation channels are soon to be refurbished.
Jebel Aulia Dam
Jebel Aulia Dam is in south west of Khartoum, about
50 KM away. This is the first time that it has been
thought over to make use of that dam.
project is for design and erection of 80 turbines.
Each two turbines are a matrix will be erected at
one dam gate. Turbine output is 380 KW. The total
capacity will be 80 x 380 k watts.
project will be subjected to 8 divisions (LOTS) each
lot consists of 10 turbines. The first lot (10
turbines) will be handed over after 16 months. The
other 8 lots of turbines will be handed over
successively within 24 months. Vatech hydro the
Austrian Comp. is the contractor. The contract
signed on 20th of Dec. 2000, and the
total contract price is 30 Million Euro which will
be paid as follows:
15 % of total price as an advanced payment
85 % of total price will be paid against contract
activities, through thirty six months on average of
( 1- 7 %) of total contract price .The project is
financed by the Sudanese Government.